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Coronavirus Research Tracking - 26 November

This week, more papers on boosted immune responses from additional vaccine doses, and the waning effectiveness against infection beyond three months. The difficulties of studying the impacts of vaccines on long Covid, vaccine safety for 12-18 year olds, correlates of protection for the Moderna vaccine, and new vaccines under development. Non-vaccine papers include a discussion about a new variant, an antiviral drug from a plant, how the lethality of infections changed in late 2020, accumulating evidence for the outbreak origin, and what we still don’t know about bat coronaviruses.

Reacción rápida sobre nueva variante detectada en Sudáfrica, B.1.1.529

Se ha identificado en Sudáfrica una nueva variante del coronavirus causante de la COVID-19, con numerosas mutaciones presentes en otras variantes, incluida la Delta. La variante B.1.1.529, como se la llama por ahora, parece propagarse con rapidez en Sudáfrica. Adjuntamos la reacción rápida de tres investigadores españoles expertos en vigilancia genómica.

What do we know about mixing COVID-19 vaccines with medications?

COVID-19 vaccines are not impacted by the large majority of prescription and over-the-counter medications people may take, even people over the age of 60. However, certain medications might impact how effective the vaccines can be be in people who take them regularly. Immunosuppressive medications and other medications that affect the immune system—including chemotherapy and steroids like prednisone—may decrease the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. The vast majority of prescription medications do not affect the immune system.

Study looking at COVID infection risk as time increases after second Pfizer vaccine dose in Israel

A study published in The BMJ looks at time since receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Por qué la mascarilla y la distancia son importantes justo ahora, que nos hemos vacunado

El mensaje de que hay que seguir protegiéndose con mascarilla, distancia, ventilación y lavado de manos se repite desde el comienzo de la vacunación, pero en pleno repunte de la pandemia en Europa cobra aún más importancia. Varias expertas advierten de que la alta cobertura vacunal en España mitigará la nueva ola pero no la eliminará: aunque las vacunas previenen la enfermedad grave, no son un escudo infranqueable y deben ser complementadas con medidas de comportamiento.

Why masks and distance are important just now that we have been vaccinated

The message that we must continue to protect ourselves with masks, distance, ventilation and hand washing has been repeated since the beginning of vaccination, but in the midst of the pandemic in Europe it is even more important. Several experts warn that the high vaccination coverage in Spain will mitigate the new wave but will not eliminate it: although vaccines prevent serious disease, they are not an insurmountable shield and must be complemented with behavioral measures.

What side effects have been associated with Sinovac’s vaccine?

Published data on phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials reports that the most common side-effect of the Sinovac vaccine is pain at the site of the injection, which is also common with other available COVID-19 vaccines. According to the World Health Organization’s information on the safety of this vaccine, this is the only side-effect that is related to the vaccine with certainty. Other mild side effects have been reported such as headache, fatigue and muscle pain, which resolved after two days, and researchers noted that they occurred in both the study group that took the vaccine, as well as the group that took the placebo (did not receive the vaccine for comparison). The studies also reported a lower chance of developing fever as a side-effect of this vaccine when compared to other COVID-19 vaccines. 

¿Son efectivas las medidas punitivas sobre las personas no vacunadas contra la covid?

Países europeos están aplicando estrategias anticovid en la población sin vacunar. Austria hará la vacunación obligatoria tras extender su confinamiento dirigido a los no vacunados a toda la población. En Alemania, las personas sin inmunizar tienen acceso restringido a restaurantes y hoteles, y deben mostrar un test negativo en el transporte público. Eslovaquia también ha impuesto restricciones a quienes han decidido no vacunarse. Suecia introducirá un pasaporte covid en eventos de más de cien personas. ¿Qué efecto tienen estas políticas?

Are punitive measures on unvaccinated people against covid effective?

European countries are implementing antiviral strategies in the unvaccinated population. Austria will make vaccination mandatory after extending its confinement targeting the unvaccinated to the entire population. In Germany, the unimmunized have restricted access to restaurants and hotels, and must show a negative test on public transport. Slovakia has also imposed restrictions on those who have chosen not to be vaccinated. Sweden will introduce a covid passport at events of more than 100 people. What is the effect of these policies?

AstraZeneca announcing new analyses of two AZD7442 COVID-19 Phase III trials in high-risk populations confirm robust efficacy and long-term prevention

The press release from AstraZeneca suggests six-month follow-up of their prevention trial showed 83% reduced risk of symptomatic COVID-19 and no severe disease or deaths with their long-acting antibody (LAAB) combination, AZD7442.

「細胞的醣脂會協助COVID-19的感染」專家意見

來自《自然》(Nature)的子期刊《自然化學生物學》(Nature Chemical Biology)刊登一項最新研究:「Sialic acid-containing glycolipids mediate binding and viral entry of SARS-CoV-2」,由加拿大阿爾伯塔大學 (University of Alberta)的研究團隊發現,人類細胞上的的唾液酸醣脂(Sialic acid-containing glycolipids)結構,會協助新冠病毒(SARS-CoV-2)與細胞結合,並促進病毒進入細胞內。這項最新的細胞研究表明,新冠病毒的受體結合區域(RBD)與唾液酸的醣脂(Sia)之間的相互作用,在病毒感染的過程中,扮演很重要的關係。 台灣科技媒體中心特邀分子病毒流行病學領域的專家,對此篇研究解析與評論。

「癌友施打疫苗與感染COVID-19研究」專家意見

隨著各國持續放寬 COVID-19 限制,高傳染性的 Delta 變異株,加劇了弱勢族群在疫苗持久性和效力的擔憂,比如癌症患者。儘管癌症患者大多列為優先施打族群,但他們並未納入關鍵的疫苗研究中,因此對他們的感染和疫苗接種反應所知甚少。 在今(2021)年10月27日的,國際期刊《自然癌症》(Nature Cancer)刊登一項大型研究計畫的兩篇報告,標題分別為「Adaptive immunity and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern following vaccination in patients with cancer: the CAPTURE study」,以及「Functional antibody and T cell immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including by variants of concern, in patients with cancer: the CAPTURE study」。 由英國弗朗西斯·克里克研究所(The Francis Crick Institute)癌症動力學實驗室的薩姆拉·圖拉傑利克(Samra Turajlic)主導的臨床試驗項目:CAPTURE(NCT03226886),依據試驗的部分結果發表了兩篇觀察性研究,分別發現了兩個重要結果。這項研究在COVID-19流行期間,對癌友的醫療照護上有重要的影響。 在第一篇研究中,評估施打AZ或BNT疫苗的585名不同癌別的患者,對Alpha, Beta, Delta的中和抗體水平,顯示血癌患者補打第三劑是有好處的。第二篇研究發現,在118名未施打疫苗的癌症患者中,固態腫瘤的患者可發展出耐受性良好的中和抗體,而血癌患者則顯示較差的體液免疫(B細胞)能力。 台灣科技媒體中心特邀病毒感染研究領域的專家,對此篇研究解析與評論。

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 12 November

This week, the safety of vaccines for under 12’s, mRNA vaccines are more effective than adenovirus-based ones, and the immunity boost from a prior infection. Non-vaccine papers include discussions of Pfizer’s Covid pill, the millions of years of life lost to Covid, genetic factors influencing disease severity, and factors influencing transmission. It is easy to get swamped by all the research on coronavirus. New Zealand’s Science Media Centre is keeping track of much of it so you don’t have to. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the Science Media Centre New Zealand. 

What do we know about COVID-19 transmission in vaccinated individuals?

Several recent studies have reached similar conclusions around transmission of COVID-19 among vaccinated individuals: 1. Individuals who are fully vaccinated transmit the virus less than those who are partially vaccinated (received one dose only) and unvaccinated individuals have the highest risk of transmission. 2. Vaccines are less effective against preventing transmission of the Delta variant, when compared to other variants of COVID-19.  Vaccines can reduce transmission by preventing infections and reducing the amount of infectious virus in someone’s body if they do get sick. However, the exact rate of transmission among vaccinated individuals (though it is rare) is still uncertain. A lot of cases of infection in vaccinated people do not progress to symptomatic disease, making it harder to know who is sick and collect data on how contagious they may be. 

「mRNA新冠疫苗與心肌炎的研究」專家意見

今(2021)年7月20日,醫學期刊《循環》(Circulation)發表一篇屬於短篇綜論(Primer)的文章,整合有關mRNA新冠疫苗與心肌炎的既有文獻,以及已發表的數據。台灣科技媒體中心特邀專家回應,期望基於科學證據,讓大眾更正確的理解COVID-19 mRNA疫苗與施打疫苗後的心肌炎事件。 【更新台灣的COVID-19 mRNA疫苗施打資訊】:11月10日指揮中心指揮官陳時中表示,衛福部預防接種諮詢委員會(ACIP)專家討論後,決定先行暫緩青少年接種BNT第2劑,將再討論2週,藉此再決定要不要施打第2劑。

「新冠陰性的血清中特殊T細胞的研究」專家意見

今(2021)年11月11日,國際期刊《自然》(Nature)發表一篇研究,藉由研究被檢測新冠病毒陰性的人血清中的免疫反應,探討暴露在新冠病毒風險下的人沒有感染病毒的可能原因。研究團隊假設既有的記憶性T細胞會對新冠病毒產生反應,有保護效果的潛力,可快速的控制病毒與中斷感染。因此運用PCR檢測陰性的醫護人員血清,針對病毒感染宿主後複製過程的一個複合體(轉錄複製複合體,簡稱RTC)的T細胞,量測其免疫反應。研究中提到,結果顯示出針對RTC的T細胞(RTC-specific T-cells),是設計新興冠狀病毒疫苗時可納入考量的目標。

Is the Pfizer vaccine safe for kids aged 5 - 11?

Two doses of the Pfizer vaccine has been found to be safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in a trial of 1500 children aged 5 -11 years of age in a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

What we know about covid-19 vaccination in children aged 5 - 11

The United States has already approved the vaccination of children between 5 and 11 years of age against covid-19. In Europe, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will make a decision in the coming weeks on the use of the Comirnaty vaccine in this population. This is what several Spanish pediatricians think about it.

「醫護接種疫苗與無症狀新冠感染的檢測」專家意見

今(2021)年11月11日,國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)發表一篇研究,分析了在退伍軍人健康管理局 (VHA) 長期照護機構中,接受頻繁、強制性SARS-CoV-2檢測(RT-PCR與抗原檢測)的近2,000名醫護人員。研究計算了新冠檢測後合適樣本的敘述性統計資料和檢測陽性率,依照疫苗接種的狀態分為5個時間區段。結果發現,比起未接種疫苗的醫護人員,有接種疫苗者與無症狀SARS-CoV-2感染的檢測下降有關。

What do we know about tromethamine in COVID-19 vaccines?

This use of tromethamine in approved COVID-19 vaccines is safe. There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines with tromethamine cause serious adverse health effects. There is also no evidence that tromethamine was added to “stabilize patients” from any negative health effects of the COVID-19 vaccines. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have repeatedly stated that tromethamine is used to stabilize the vaccine itself and lengthen the time doses can be kept in storage.

SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breastmilk after COVID-19 infection versus after COVID-19 vaccination

A study published in JAMA Paediatrics looks at breastmilk antibody induction, persistence, and neutralizing capacity after SARS-CoV-2 infection vs after mRNA vaccination.

What do we know about vaccines in teens?

COVID-19 vaccines do not impact development, puberty, or fertility in teenagers or children. It is not possible for the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines made by Pfizer or Moderna to interfere with a child's genetics. Like other childhood vaccines, these new immunizations will not impact puberty or fertility in teenagers.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 5 November - Vaccine edition

This week, comparing the immune effective of vaccinations and natural infections, the benefits of a prior infection plus vaccination, effectiveness of mixing-and-matching vaccines and third doses, a skin patch vaccine delivery system, modifying vaccines for variants, comparing the neurological risks from Covid-19 and vaccinations, and the effectiveness of vaccines for immunocompromised people. It is easy to get swamped by all the research on coronavirus. New Zealand’s Science Media Centre is keeping track of much of it so you don’t have to. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the Science Media Centre New Zealand.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 5 November - Non-vaccine edition

This week non-vaccine papers include the potential of long lasting immunity from natural infections, assessing the cognitive effects of Covid-19, potential new therapies, how infection disrupts the blood system, estimating infections early in the pandemic and in less developed countries, controlling infections in schools, and white-tailed deer as a possible reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.

Qué sabemos sobre la vacuna a niños de 5 a 11 años

Estados Unidos ya ha aprobado la vacunación de niños de entre 5 y 11 años contra la covid-19. En Europa, la Agencia Europea del Medicamento (EMA) se pronunciará las próximas semanas sobre el uso de la vacuna Comirnaty en esa población. Esto es lo que varios pediatras españoles opinan al respecto.

Reacción al estudio que analiza la generación de células T específicas de memoria tras la vacunación con Pfizer

Un estudio ha monitorizado las respuestas de los linfocitos T a la espícula del SARS-CoV-2 en 71 donantes sanos que recibieron las dos dosis de la vacuna de Pfizer. Tras un seguimiento de hasta seis meses los investigadores vieron que se generaban y mantenían células de memoria específicas que persistieron durante al menos seis meses.

Reaction to the study analyzing the generation of specific memory T cells after vaccination with Pfizer.

A study has monitored T-lymphocyte responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike in 71 healthy donors who received both doses of Pfizer's vaccine. After follow-up for up to six months the researchers saw that specific memory cells were generated and maintained that persisted for at least six months.

How do vaccine doses work in children?

Unlike some medications, height and weight are not very important when considering vaccine dosages against COVID-19. The dosage for COVID-19 vaccines are based on age, not size. Children aged 5-11 receive 10 microgram injections three weeks apart. Kids 12-17 and older get 30 microgram dosages three weeks apart. Children still produce very robust immune system responses with smaller dosages.

Reacción al estudio que analiza la transmisión de delta en domicilios británicos

Un análisis de 602 contactos comunitarios de 471 casos índice de covid-19 indica que la tasa de ataque secundaria (TAS) para contactos domiciliarios expuestos a la variante delta es del 25 % en individuos completamente vacunados, frente al 38 % en individuos sin vacunar.

Reaction to study analyzing delta transmission in British homes

An analysis of 602 community contacts of 471 covid-19 index cases indicates that the secondary attack rate (SAR) for household contacts exposed to the delta variant is 25% in fully vaccinated individuals compared to 38% in unvaccinated individuals.

What do we know about how long COVID-19 vaccine protection lasts in children?

Scientists are still gathering data to better understand how COVID-19 vaccines last in both young people and older adults. For people over 16, current data suggests that COVID-19 vaccine protection can last at least 6 to 8 months. This is based on studies conducted by Moderna, Pfizer and BioNTech, and Johnson & Johnson as well as other pre-print and peer-reviewed research publications. Since clinical trials have found that the vaccines work similarly in adults and children aged 5-11, it is possible that vaccine-induced immunity may last for a similar amount of time in those groups.

COVID-19 vaccines do not alter human DNA

According to the United States National Institutes of Health (U.S. NIH), gene therapy is "...[A]n experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patient’s cells instead of using drugs or surgery."

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 29 October - Vaccine edition

This week, more on comparing vaccine effectiveness, third doses, and mixing-and-matching vaccines. Plus, incidence of asymptomatic infections, and the effects of vaccines on reducing Covid symptoms.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 29 October - Non-vaccine edition

This week, papers on longer range indoor transmission and differences in infection risks among different essential workers. Plus, statin as an infective therapy, long Covid in younger people, wastewater testing can provide an early warning of new variants, genetic factors that may explain differences in infection outcomes, the limited risk opening up schools may pose, and seasonal patterns of infection.

Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration approves Pfizer boosters, to be available from Nov 8

Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has approved booster shots of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, to be administered six months after the second dose of any COVID-19 vaccine. The Federal Government has announced boosters will be available from Nov 8th.

Vaccine mandates for high-risk workplaces in New Zealand – Expert Reaction

Vaccination will be required for all workers at businesses where customers need to show vaccine certificates, such as bars and hairdressers. This means about 40% of the country’s workforce will be subject to vaccine mandates in their jobs, including the health and education staff already announced. The timing of this move will coincide with the shift to the new Covid-19 Protection Framework.

Valoración del Dr. Ángel Hernández Merino sobre estudios de efectividad de vacuna en adolescentes

Dos estudios, publicados en The New England Journal of Medicine y Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), hallan que la vacunación contra COVID-19 protege de manera efectiva tanto de la infección como de la enfermedad grave a los niños y adolescentes entre 12 y 18años. Ambos trabajos cubren períodos en que la variante Delta, más transmisible, era la dominante. El pediatra Ángel Hernández Merino valora estos resultados.

Expert reaction on studies reporting COVID-19 vaccination strongly protects adolescents against Delta

Two new studies published on The New England Journal of Medicine and the CDC Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), show that COVID-19 vaccination strongly protects against both infection and serious illness among adolescents age 12 to 18. Both studies covered periods when the highly contagious Delta variant was the predominant circulating strain.

Reacción al estudio que analiza las complicaciones neurológicas tras la infección por SARS-Cov-2 y tras la vacunación

Un estudio llevado a cabo con 32 millones de adultos de Inglaterra ha mostrado un pequeño aumento en el riesgo de sufrir síndrome de Guillain-Barré y parálisis de Bell, dos condiciones neurológicas, tras recibir la vacuna de AstraZeneca. También de padecer un accidente cerebrovascular tras recibir la de Pfizer. Aun así, según el trabajo, estos efectos secundarios son raros y las probabilidades de sufrirlos son mucho mayores tras la infección por SARS-CoV-2.

Reaction to the study analyzing neurological complications after SARS-Cov-2 infection and after vaccination

A study of 32 million adults in England has shown a small increase in the risk of suffering Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bell's palsy, two neurological conditions, after receiving AstraZeneca's vaccine. It also showed an increased risk of stroke after receiving Pfizer's vaccine. Even so, according to the study, these side effects are rare and the chances of suffering them are much higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

網傳「英國公共衛生部數據顯示接種疫苗的住院死亡風險反增?」專家解析

今(2021)年8月9日,一則發布在臉書的傳言說:「65%的Covid-19死亡個案都已接種相關疫苗,已接種感染者的住院率和死亡率亦高於尚未接種的感染者」。傳言的作者寫道「Covid-19疫苗充分地增加了Delta感染者的住院死亡風險」、「數據顯示接種疫苗的住院風險反增了48%」、「Covid-19疫苗並沒有將死亡風險降低95%,它反令接種者感染後的死亡風險增加了431.25%」。 這篇文章已引起眾多關注和轉傳,台灣科技媒體中心(SMC)希望能依實證醫學研究的精神,藉由專業領域之專家釐清民眾在傳言中產生的疑慮。

Rare neurological complications after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination

A study published in Nature Medicine looks at neurological complications after the first dose of COVID-19 vaccines and after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

En las embarazadas es más importante la segunda dosis de la vacuna COVID 19 para desarrollar una respuesta inmunitaria completa-Reacción de experta

Un estudio en Science Translational Medicine demuestra que las mujeres embarazadas dependen más de una segunda dosis de la vacuna para desarrollar una respuesta inmunitaria completa. El trabajo arroja luz sobre cómo el embarazo afecta a la inmunidad contra el SARS-CoV-2, una cuestión aún poco estudiada. La obstetra Mar Gil destaca la importancia de que las embarazadas se vacunen, y de que sean incluidas en los ensayos clínicos.

Reacción al estudio que analiza la combinación de vacunas de AstraZeneca, Pfizer y Moderna en Suecia

Un estudio llevado a cabo en Suecia con más de 700.000 personas analizó la efectividad de la pauta heteróloga, consistente en combinar la vacuna de AstraZeneca con otra dosis de una de ARN mensajero, con la pauta homóloga tradicional, consistente en dos dosis de AstraZeneca. Los resultados mostraron una mayor protección contra la infección por SARS-CoV-2 cuando se combinaban dos vacunas diferentes.

Reaction to the study analyzing the combination of AstraZeneca, Pfizer and Moderna vaccines in Sweden.

A study conducted in Sweden with more than 700,000 people analyzed the effectiveness of the heterologous schedule, consisting of combining the AstraZeneca vaccine with another dose of a messenger RNA vaccine, with the traditional homologous schedule, consisting of two doses of AstraZeneca. The results showed greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection when two different vaccines were combined.

「混打AZ疫苗與BNT疫苗的免疫特性和效果」專家意見

今(2021)年10月21日,國際期刊《自然》(Nature)公開一篇法國里昂國際傳染病研究中心(Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie Lyon, CIRI)的研究,探討混合施打AZ與BNT兩種不同廠牌的新冠疫苗後,產生細胞免疫的特性與效果。研究觀察13,121名護理人員的真實世界數據,發現混打AZ與BNT疫苗,比起施打兩劑BNT疫苗,可更好的預防新冠病毒引起的嚴重急性呼吸系統綜合症。研究團隊為瞭解混打這兩種疫苗的機制,觀察兩種疫苗不同的施打組合,發現兩種組合都可以引起很強的抗體反應,而混打疫苗的個體,血清中抗體都有更強的中和能力。此增強的效果,與轉化、活化B細胞辨認新冠病毒受體結合區域(Receptor Binding Domain, RBD)的頻率上升有關。 比起第一劑的BNT疫苗,AZ疫苗引起的IgG反應較弱,但引起T細胞的反應更強,作者認為這可解釋兩種疫苗混打後效果較好的原因。研究結論也提到,混打的方式可能特別適合免疫功能較低下的人。

Pregnant women depend more on a second vaccine dose to reach full vaccine immunity- Expert reaction

Pregnancy can affect how the immune system responds to COVID-19 infections and to approved mRNA vaccines, according to a new study published on Science Translational Medicine. The study demonstrates that pregnant women depended more on a second vaccine dose to reach full vaccine immunity, This finding help demystify how pregnancy affects immunity towards SARS-CoV-2 – an important but understudied topic. It also highlights the need to incorporate women at different stages of gestation into clinical trials.

There is no evidence linking COVID-19 vaccines with diseases like cancer or HIV

There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines can cause or are linked to increased risks of cancer. There are also no data that support a recent surge in cancers since the COVID-19 vaccination rollout began in late 2020. (It should be noted that most data for cancer incidence for 2021 has not yet been tallied). Most scientists have seen a decrease in cancer incidences as it is estimated that at least 20% of people have had to delay medical care and treatment, such as testing for cancerous maladies.

Valneva giving top line phase 3 results for its inactivated, adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine candidate VLA2001

The press release from Valneva reports positive phase 3 results for inactivated, adjuvanted COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate VLA2001.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 15 October - Vaccine edition

This week, data on the effectiveness of a third Pfizer dose, and papers on the effectiveness of vaccines against infections and hospitalisations, mixed vaccinations, and against variants of concern. Plus, the benefit of vaccines for pregnant women and within households.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 15 October - Non-vaccine edition

This week, papers on immune memory after natural infection, a very potent antibody, a promising RNA interference therapy, Delta infectiousness, the frequent occurrence of long Covid, and differing estimates of transmission risks within schools.

「家人提供的COVID-19免疫保護研究」專家意見

在台灣時間今(2021)年10月11日的晚間11點,國際期刊《美國醫學會內科醫學》(JAMA Internal Medicine)刊登一篇研究,標題為「Association Between Risk of COVID-19 Infection in Nonimmune Individuals and COVID-19 Immunity in Their Family Members」,研究團隊利用瑞典的國家數據登錄資料庫進行回溯性的世代研究(cohort study),研究發現在家庭成員中,越多人具有COVID-19的免疫保護力,其他沒免疫力的人接觸與感染COVID-19的相對風險就越低。 台灣科技媒體中心特邀兩位感染醫學領域的專家對此篇研究解析與評論。

COVID-19 vaccines do not change the color of blood

The blood of people who have received a COVID-19 vaccine is not visibly darker than the blood of vaccinated people.

What does science say about COVID-19 vaccines and male libido?

There is no evidence suggesting that increased male libido (i.e. sex drive) is a common side effect from approved COVID-19 vaccines. Similarly, there is no evidence suggesting that the approved COVID-19 vaccines lead to decreased male libido or fertility. Common side effects include pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, joint and muscle pain, which have the potential to temporarily decrease libido while the vaccine recipient recovers from minor side effects.

Covid shots mandated for health & education staff in New Zealand – Expert Reaction

All front-line staff in New Zealand who work in schools, early childhood education, and health & disability services, will soon be required to be vaccinated against Covid-19. Health workers must have both Covid shots by 1 Dec, while education workers – including administrators, maintenance staff and contractors – must be fully vaccinated by the start of January.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 8 October

This week comparing immune responses in natural infections and vaccination, declines in antibody and T cell responses, waning protection from infection, vaccine effects on transmission and long Covid, and the low risk of myocarditis. Non-vaccine reports include the effectiveness of Molnupiravir, Delta virulence, and the need for more frequent testing in Delta outbreaks.

Australia recommends booster shots for severely immunocompromised

Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) has recommended a booster shot be given to people who are severely immunocompromised. ATAGI says an mRNA vaccine (Pfizer or Moderna) is preferred over the AstraZeneca vaccine for this 3rd dose. They recommend the 3rd dose be given 2 to 6 months after the 2nd dose of vaccine. People who have had a second dose more than 6 months ago should receive a 3rd dose whenever feasible.

Reacción de expertos a las recomendaciones de la EMA sobre tercera dosis de la vacuna Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech) y Spikevax (Moderna)

La Agencia Europea del Medicamento emitió ayer por la tarde sus recomendaciones relativas a la administración de una tercera dosis de las vacunas Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech) y Spikevax (Moderna). Estas son las valoraciones de varios expertos al respecto.

Reacción de expertos a la posibilidad de dar una segunda dosis de Janssen a quienes recibieron la primera

Johnson & Johnson acaba de publicar mediante nota de prensa datos preliminares relativos a su ensayo con dos dosis. En ellos muestra que la segunda dosis aumenta la respuesta de los anticuerpos y, además, confirma la duración de la protección entre quienes recibieron una.

Expert reaction to the possibility of giving a second dose of Janssen to those who received the first one

Johnson & Johnson has just released preliminary data from its two-dose trial in a press release. It shows that the second dose increases the antibody response and also confirms the duration of protection among those who received one dose.

Expert reaction on EMA recommendations on extra doses and boosters

The European Medicines Agency issued its recommendations yesterday afternoon regarding the administration of a third dose of the Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech) and Spikevax (Moderna) vaccines. These are the reactions of several experts on the matter.

Is Merck’s Covid-19 pill Molnupiravir a game-changer?

The Australian government has announced it has bought 300,000 doses of Merck COVID-19 treatment drug molnupiravir, although it has not yet been approved for use by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Merck has released data from an interim analysis of an ongoing phase-3 trial of molnupiravir in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Below an Australian expert explains what we know about the drug and what it means for vaccines.

Why is making an HIV vaccine harder than making one for COVID-19?

There is no Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) vaccine currently available to prevent HIV or treat people who have the virus. There are several reasons why the production of HIV vaccines are taking longer than ones for other viruses such as SARS-COV-2. Namely, HIV is a more difficult organism to make a vaccine against.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 1 October - Vaccine edition

This week vaccine-related papers on when vaccine immune does or doesn’t decline, differing antibody responses to different vaccines, correlates of protection for the AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccine, and viral loads in vaccinated people.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 1 October - Non-vaccine edition

This week’s non-vaccine studies include the prevalence of long Covid, the high rates of Covid-19-related deaths, understanding what happens in the lungs in severe cases, more research into viral origins, and a correlation between authoritarian views and infection rates.

What is used as the control in human clinical trials of a drug or vaccine?

In clinical trials of a drug or vaccine, the control receives either a placebo or an active control, which is a safe and effective approved treatment. Placebo is the gold standard, but sometimes an active control is needed due to ethical concerns or to reduce bias in a study.

Which groups in NZ are at risk of under-vaccination? – Expert Reaction

While 80 percent of New Zealand’s eligible population is either vaccinated or booked in to get a Covid jab, challenges remain in reaching people on the rollout’s final frontier. The SMC asked experts to comment on: Vaccine access issues Māori vaccination rates How to reach under-vaccinated groups Pasifika people becoming more willing to be vaccinated Access for people with disabilities Accounting for unequal coverage when modelling the vaccine rollout

Immunkorrelat für Schutz vor symptomatischem COVID-19 nach Vaxzevria-Impfung

Forscher schlagen einen Mindestwert für einen Antikörperspiegel gegen SARS-CoV-2 vor, ab dem ein Schutz vor symptomatischer COVID-19-Erkrankung wahrscheinlich ist. Als sogenanntes Immunkorrelat definiert ein Team um britische Forschende in einer Studie im Fachjournal „Nature Medicine” (siehe Primärquelle) zwei solche Grenzwerte für zwei verschiedene Antikörper gegen das Pandemie-Virus nach einer Vaxzevria-Impfung. Anhand eines Immunkorrelats lässt sich bestimmen, ob ein ausreichender Immunschutz vorliegt oder ob beispielsweise eine Auffrischungsimpfung empfehlenswert ist. Schon seit Langem betonen Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler, wie wichtig es sei, ein Immunkorrelat zu kennen, mit dem sich zuverlässig in der Praxis und in der Forschung bestimmen lässt, wie hoch der individuelle Schutz gegen das Virus ist. Die Konzentration auf Antikörper lässt dabei wichtige Teile des Immunsystems – wie B- und T-Zellen außer Acht. Die Bestimmung dieses Grenzwertes geht aus der Fortführung der Zulassungsstudie für den COVID-19-Impfstoff Vaxzevria der Firma Astrazeneca hervor. Für einen Teil der originalen Studiengruppe von 4372 Probandinnen und Probanden lagen den Forschenden Daten aus einem von vier Antikörper-Tests vor, welche daraufhin in die Studie eingeschlossen wurden. Das traf auf 1404 Menschen ohne SARS-CoV-2-Infektion und 171 Durchbruchsinfektionen zu – also Personen, die sich nachweislich nach der Impfung mit SARS-CoV-2 infizierten (Die beiden vorherigen Sätze wurden nachträglich korrigiert, da sie einen falschen Bezug zwischen den Studienkohorten hergestellt haben; Anm. d. Red.) Die Forschenden analysierten, ob die Höhe der Antikörperspiegel mit dem Auftreten einer Infektion statistisch zusammenhing, also korrelierte. Sie fanden, dass ein 80-prozentiger Schutz vor symptomatischer Infektion gegen die SARS-CoV-2-Variante Alpha mit 264 Einheiten – sogenannter binding antibody units pro Milliliter Blut (BAU/ml) – des IgG-Antikörpers, der das Spike-Protein von SARS-CoV-2 erkennt, korrelierten. Für den IgG-Antikörper gegen die Rezeptorbindedomäne des Virus errechneten sie ein Korrelat von 506 BAU/ml für den Zeitpunkt 28 Tage nach der zweiten Impfdosis. In etwa vergleichbare Grenzwerte für die Antikörpertiter ermittelten Forschende bei Geimpften, die mit dem Impfstoff Spikevax von Moderna geimpft wurden [III]. Zu beachten ist allerdings, dass in beiden Studien die Konfidenzintervalle für die ermittelten Werte sehr groß sind – also noch eine größere Unsicherheit über die tatsächliche Höhe des Immunkorrelats besteht. Inwiefern das in der Studie ermittelte Immunkorrelat in der Praxis weiterhilft und wie sich andere Varianten auf seine Höhe auswirken, beantworten zwei Experten.

What do we know about the side effects of booster shots?

Currently available data suggest that the side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine booster doses are similar to side effects from the initial set of vaccine doses. Approved booster shots are considered safe and are currently recommended in some countries for people who are immunocompromised, people who are older than age 65, and people who are at higher risk of exposure due to their work (e.g. medical and other frontline jobs). 

各國COVID-19兒童疫苗施打資訊一次看(持續更新)

各國COVID-19兒童疫苗施打資訊

How Can We Be Sure Vaccination against COVID-19 Doesn’t Cause Infertility?

Despite the fact that fertility experts recommend vaccination against COVID-19 and there are several studies showing no concern for fertility, many people still harbor fears. This article from a leading gynecologist explains the research that shows it is safe.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 24 September

This week Pfizer’s data on vaccinating 5 to 11 year olds, papers on the effectiveness of the Moderna vaccine, the effectiveness of several vaccines against different variants, the immunity boost from natural infection, and the need for more research on whether vaccination affects menstruation. Non-vaccine research includes years of life lost due to Covid, mixed results for Remdesivir, infectiousness of the Delta variant, an artificial intelligence success, paranoia and its influences, and underestimating infections from bats.

‘Very high’ vaccination rate needed to end lockdowns in New Zealand – Expert Reaction

A new modelling paper says that New Zealand may no longer need lockdowns if we vaccinate 90 per cent of the population. The paper authors say moderate public health measures like mask use and gathering restrictions may even have to remain at this high rate of vaccination, due to how transmissible the Delta variant is. See the Te Pūnaha Matatini paper and press release here: https://www.tepunahamatatini.ac.nz/2021/09/23/modelling-to-support-a-future-covid-19-strategy/. Note: this paper has not been externally peer-reviewed.

Pfizer and BioNTech announce phase 2/3 trial results in of COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 5 to 11

Pfizer and BioNTech have announced in a press release the results from a Phase 2/3 trial looking at the safety profile and antibody responses to the COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. The trial used a two-dose regimen of 10 µg administered 21 days apart, a smaller dose than the 30 µg dose used for people 12 and older.

What do we know about vaccine distribution for children?

COVID-19 vaccines should be prioritized for older and medically vulnerable populations. In countries where vaccines are available and approved for children 12 and older, kids should be vaccinated if possible. More research is needed on vaccinating children under 12 but early research showing their safety and strengthening of immune system responses is promising.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 17 September - vaccine edition

This week there are lots of vaccine-related studies. Emerging evidence on the effectiveness of a booster dose for the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, and effectiveness of several vaccines in general, as well as against the Delta variant. Plus, comparing immune responses to different vaccines, evidence for vaccines reducing transmissibility, and vaccine-related myocarditis risks for boys. Non-vaccine-related papers are in a separate Tracker again today.

Neue Indikatoren der COVID-19-Strategie für Herbst/Winter – Rapid Reaction

Das Robert Koch-Institut hat diese Woche seine Strategie zum Umgang mit der COVID-19-Pandemie für den kommenden Herbst und Winter aktualisiert. Darin führt es auch ein neues Paket an Indikatoren ein, anhand derer die aktuelle Lage in drei Stufen – Basisstufe, Stufe 1 und Stufe 2 – eingeteilt, bewertet und in der Folge Maßnahmen angepasst werden sollen. Vor allem diese Indikatoren sind Gegenstand näherer Betrachtung in diesem SMC-Angebot und werden durch Fachleute bewertet; auch eine kurze Einschätzung der Lage findet Platz. Das Robert Koch-Institut setzt in seiner Strategie weiter auf die Einhaltung von klassischen individuellen Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung: Alle Menschen – also auch Geimpfte und Genesene – sollen sich in allen Lebensbereichen auch in der Basisstufe der Strategie weiter an Regeln wie Abstand halten, Masken tragen und Lüften halten. Ungeimpfte sollen sich in allen Settings schon auf dieser Stufe testen lassen. Mit höheren Stufen kommen vor allem in Bereichen mit Personen mit hohem Risiko weitere verschärfende Maßnahmen hinzu. In der höchsten Stufe 2 findet dann die 2G-Regel mehr Anwendung, also Zugang nur für Geimpfte oder Genesene. Das Strategiepapier ist ein Vorschlag des RKI, wie die einzelnen Bundesländer die Coronaschutzverordnungen ausgestalten können. Die Pandemie soll in Deutschland dem Plan zufolge also weiterhin durch Maßnahmen unter Kontrolle gehalten werden, allerdings eher mit individuellen Maßnahmen als mit Schließungen von Einrichtungen oder Einschränkungen ganzer Gesellschaftsbereiche. Andere Länder heben bereits alle Restriktionen auf, wie beispielsweise Dänemark, das Vereinigte Königreich und die Niederlande. Die Indikatoren: Zur Beurteilung der Pandemielage auf Bundesländerebene sollen zukünftig drei Indikatoren herangezogen werden: die Inzidenz, die Hospitalisierungsinzidenz und die durch COVID-19 gebundene Kapazität der Intensivstationen in Prozent. Für einen Wechsel in eine höhere Gefährdungs- und damit Maßnahmenstufe müssen bei zwei der drei tagesaktuellen Indikatoren die jeweiligen Grenzwerte an drei aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen überschritten werden. Das SMC hat die aktuelle Lage in den einzelnen Bundesländern anhand der Indikatorik des RKI folgend aufgeschlüsselt (siehe Tabelle im Corona Report vom 15.09.2021). Die Werte gibt das RKI mittlerweile von Montag bis Freitag aktualisiert in einem eigenen Dashboard tagesaktuell an. Bei ihrer Betrachtung sind gewisse Muster zu beobachten: Bei der aktuellen Teststrategie sollte immer zuerst die Inzidenz den Grenzwert zur nächsten Stufe übersteigen. Erst eine deutlich höhere Dunkelziffer oder ein geändertes Verhältnis zwischen Inzidenz und Hospitalisierung würde dazu führen, dass zuerst einer der anderen beiden Parameter den Grenzwert zur nächsten Stufe erreicht. In den meisten Fällen überschreitet nach der Inzidenz wahrscheinlich die Auslastung der Intensivstationen den Grenzwert, sodass die nächste Maßnahmenstufe ausgelöst würde. Die vom RKI vorgeschlagene tagesaktuelle Betrachtung der Werte verursacht allerdings große Probleme durch den Meldeverzug bei der Inzidenz, vor allem bei der Hospitalisierungsinzidenz. Letzterer Wert ist an das Meldedatum geknüpft – die Hospitalisierungsinzidenz liegt somit tagesaktuell viel niedriger als in der Realität. Das RKI scheint die Grenzwerte im Strategiepapier also auf der Basis der Werte ohne Nachmeldungen und damit eher niedrig gewählt zu haben, damit der Indikator die Situation adäquat anzeigen kann. Sollte es in den Bundesländern unterschiedlich starken Meldeverzug geben, müssen die Grenzwerte für das jeweilige Bundesland entsprechend angepasst werden. Einige Bundesländer nutzen für ihre Regeln Daten aus anderen Quellen, um die tagesaktuelle Situation genauer zu schätzen. Beim Vergleich der Grenzwerte in den verschiedenen Ländern muss darauf geachtet werden, dass die Grenzwerte je nach Datenquelle unterschiedlich hoch ausfallen und trotzdem qualitativ das gleiche Geschehen beschreiben können: Werden Krankenhauseinweisungen beispielsweise schnell erfasst und regional tagesaktuell abgebildet, spiegelt ein relativ zum RKI-Wert höherer Grenzwert eventuell die gleiche Grenze wider. Wie sinnvoll die vom RKI gewählten Indikatoren und die Höhe der Grenzwerte auch mit Blick auf die aktuelle COVID-19-Lage in Deutschland sind und was in den Meldewegen und ihrer Darstellung noch verbessert werden müsste, schätzen Fachleute nachfolgend ein.

6 tips for covering COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy

In 2019, the World Health Organization listed vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health, so it’s important for journalists to shed light on the issue and educate the public about it. Here are some tips on how to cover it, from The Journalist's Resource

What do we know about the Novavax vaccine?

The Novavax vaccine is the remaining Covid-19 jab among the New Zealand Government’s pre-purchase agreements that’s under review by Medsafe, with doses expected to arrive early next year. Medicines regulator Medsafe approved the three other vaccines in the Government’s Covid-19 vaccine portfolio this year, with only the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine currently being used in New Zealand’s vaccination campaign.

「澳洲施打疫苗對Delta病毒的直接保護力和群體保護力」專家意見

今(2021)年9月6日《澳大利亞醫學雜誌》(Medical Journal of Australia)公開研究論文,使用數學模型探討澳洲2019年疫苗種類、接種年齡、覆蓋率等,對疫情直接和間接的影響。結果發現先讓較脆弱的族群施打疫苗,對於覆蓋率較低的國家而言,是較合適的策略。但在Rt值(平均每個病人可傳染人數的估計值)較低且覆蓋率較高的區域,為高傳播風險的族群接種疫苗會變得更加重要。如果是Rt值為5的情況,可能需要為包括兒童在內、超過 85% 的人口接種疫苗,才能達到群體免疫。即使沒有群體免疫,疫苗也能有效減少死亡。

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 10 September

This week, vaccines and infectiousness, differing results for Delta hospitalisation risks, effectiveness of a third dose, vaccine safety studies, and what influences vaccine hesitancy. In non-vaccine studies, rapid antigen tests, children’s strong innate immunity, the low risk from public toilets, and episodic mutation rates.

What do individuals with HIV need to know before they get vaccinated against COVID-19?

Individuals living with HIV can safely be vaccinated against COVID-19. As part of the authorization process that the available vaccines go through before being available for mass vaccination, clinical trials allow researchers to establish the safety of a vaccine. The clinical trials used to test the safety of the authorized Covid-19 vaccines included people with HIV infection, and were deemed safe. 

「Delta免疫逃逸與突破性感染研究」專家意見

在2021年9月6日台灣時間晚上11:00,正式發表在國際期刊《自然》(Nature)研究標題:「SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 Delta variant replication and immune evasion」,由英國劍橋大學臨床微生物學教授古普塔(Ravindra Gupta)帶領研究團隊,從病毒學角度發現,相對於先前的變種病毒(Alpha、Kappa),最近在全球迅速傳播的Delta變種病毒(B.1.617.2),具有一些結構上的優勢特徵,包括:更快速的複製能力(replication)、更好的細胞融合&入侵能力(spike mediated cell fusion and entry)、較高的突破性感染(breakthrough infection)以及更低的中和抗體敏感度等優勢,才能在短時間內迅速取代Alpha成為主流病毒株。該研究認為,在全球接種疫苗的後時代,持續採取感染控制等措施與加強疫苗對變種病毒的免疫反應可能仍是必須的。

ما الذي يحتاج المصابون بفيروس نقص المناعة البشرية لمعرفته قبل أن أخذهم لقاحًا ضد كوفيد-19؟

يمكن للمتعايشين مع فيروس نقص المناعة البشرية أخذ لقاح ضد كوفيد-19 بشكل آمن. كجزء من عملية الترخيص التي تمر بها اللقاحات المتاحة قبل إتاحتها للتلقيح الشامل، تسمح التجارب السريرية للباحثين بإثبات سلامة اللقاح. شملت التجارب السريرية المستخدمة لاختبار سلامة لقاحات كوفيد-19 المصرح بها أشخاصًا مصابين بعدوى فيروس نقص المناعة البشرية، واعتبرت آمنة. 

Ano ang kailangang malaman ng mga taong may HIV bago sila mabakunahan laban sa COVID-19?

Maaaring ligtas na mabakunahan laban sa COVID-19 ang mga taong may HIV. Natitiyak ng mga mananaliksik ang kaligtasan ng bakuna sa pamamagitan ng mga klinikal na pagsubok, na bahagi ng proseso ng awtorisasyon kung saan sumasailalim ang mga magagamit na bakuna bago gamitin ang mga ito para sa pagbabakuna sa publiko. May mga taong may impeksyong dulot ng HIV na kasama sa mga klinikal na pagsubok na isinagawa para masubukan ang kaligtasan ng mga awtorisadong bakuna para sa COVID-19, at napagpasyahang ligtas ang mga naturang bakuna. 

एचआईवी से पीड़ित व्यक्तियों को कोविड-19 का टीका लगवाने से पहले क्या जानना चाहिए?

एचआईवी के साथ रहने वाले व्यक्तियों को सुरक्षित रूप से कोविड-19 के खिलाफ टीका लगाया जा सकता है। उपलब्ध टीके सामूहिक टीकाकरण के लिए उपलब्ध होने से पहले जिस प्राधिकरण प्रक्रिया से गुजरते हैं, उसके तहत नैदानिक ​​परीक्षण शोधकर्ताओं को एक टीके की सुरक्षा स्थापित करने की अनुमति देते हैं। अधिकृत कोविड-19 टीकों की सुरक्षा का परीक्षण करने के लिए किए जाने वाले नैदानिक ​​​​परीक्षणों में एचआईवी संक्रमण वाले लोग शामिल थे, और उन्हें सुरक्षित माना गया था। 

Rates of miscarriage in women who had and hadn’t received COVID-19 vaccines

Two papers published on Wednesday in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) look at rates of spontaneous abortion in women who had and hadn’t received COVID-19 vaccines.

「以色列兒童感染不同新冠變種病毒的傳播狀況」專家意見

今(2021)年9月7日,國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)發表最新研究,這份關聯性研究分析以色列衛生署的資料,比較0歲至9歲兒童在兩段不同新冠變種病毒(武漢病毒與Alpha病毒)流行的期間,PCR檢測陽性率、COVID-19發生率,以及住院人數的差異。 結果發現,在Alpha變種病毒(B.1.1.7)流行期間,雖然病毒在0歲至9歲兒童中的傳播更快、更有效率,傳播病毒給其他接觸者的傳播率,是武漢GR和GH病毒流行期間的兩倍,但住院率下降。 儘管Alpha流行期間正在大量的讓成人施打疫苗,希望間接的減緩病毒傳播給兒童,但還是發現傳播率上升。研究結論提到,建議各地應該預想到兒童在學校和家中傳播病毒的狀況,並採取減緩傳播的措施。

UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation recommends against vaccination of healthy 12 to 15 year olds

The UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) has said the margin of benefit of vaccination is considered too small to support universal vaccination of healthy 12 to 15 year olds at this time. They say the health benefits from vaccination are marginally greater than the potential known harms in this age group.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 3 September

This week we again have separate issues on vaccine and non-vaccine papers. Continuing research on effective of vaccines against infections and hospitalisations, and waning immunity. Plus, the benefit of getting vaccinated even if previously infected, how vaccines may reduce risk of Long Covid, and ethical and scientific perspectives on booster shots.

Preprint zur Wirksamkeit des mRNA-Impfstoffs der Firma Curevac

Daten zur klinischen Wirksamkeit des mRNA-Impfstoffs CVnCoV der Tübinger Firma Curevac waren bisher allein aus Pressekonferenzen und -mitteilungen bekannt. Vergangene Woche erschien nun eine erste wissenschaftliche Preprint-Publikation (siehe Primärquelle). In der bisher nicht begutachteten Auswertung der Phase 2b/3 Studie werden Daten zur klinischen Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von zwei Impfdosen mit je zwölf Mikrogramm CVnCoV im Abstand von vier Wochen beschrieben. Daten zur Immunogenität des Impfstoffs im Serum der Probanden sind erst für spätere Publikationen angekündigt. In Studienzentren in Europa und Lateinamerika wurden dem Preprint zufolge zwischen dem 11.12.2020 und dem 12.04.2021 insgesamt 39.680 Teilnehmer randomisiert, 19.783 erhielten CVnCoV, 19.746 ein Placebo. Die publizierten Daten basieren auf 228 dokumentierten SARS-CoV-2-Infektionen von jeglichem Schweregrad, die frühestens zwei Wochen nach Verabreichung der zweiten Dosis auftraten. Eine Besonderheit der klinischen Studie ist die sehr hohe Drop-Out-Rate der Teilnehmenden, bei den Probanden zwischen 18 und 60 Jahren wurden 32 Prozent entblindet, bei den älteren Probanden flossen 70 Prozent der zunächst Teilnehmenden nicht in die Endauswertung ein. Bei den verbliebenen Probanden ergab sich im Vergleich von Impfstoff und Placebo eine Gesamteffektivität („Vaccine Efficacy“, VE) von 48,2 Prozent. Unterteilt man die Wirksamkeit der Impfung zwischen Impfgruppe und Placebo in dem europäischen und den lateinamerikanischen Arm, dann betrugt die VE in Europa lediglich 43,7 Prozent, in Lateinamerika 49,2 Prozent. Die VE lag damit unter der von FDA und WHO als Kriterium für eine Zulassung angegebenen unteren Grenze von 50 Prozent. Allein bei Teilnehmenden im Alter von 18 bis 60 Jahren betrug die Impfeffektivität in einer Subgruppenanalyse 52,5 Prozent. Die Gesamt-VE gegen mittelschwere bis schwere COVID-19-Fälle betrug in dieser Altersgruppe 77,2 Prozent. Bei Probanden über 61 Jahren konnten aufgrund niedriger Fallzahlen statistisch keine Wirksamkeitsunterschiede belegt werden (CVnCoV: 12, Placebo: 9). Der Impfstoff befindet sich bereits seit Februar 2021 in einem sogenannten Rolling-Review-Verfahren der Europäischen Arzneimittelbehörde (EMA), die Firma Curevac hat mit der Publikation des Preprints erneut verkündet, in „engem Kontakt“ mit der EMA zu stehen und sich weiterhin um die Zulassung von CVnCoV bemühen zu wollen. Ein offizieller Zulassungsantrag liegt jedoch bisher nicht vor. Der Vertrag der EU-Kommission mit dem Hersteller verpflichtet zu einem Kauf der vorbestellten Impfdosen allein für den Fall einer europäischen Zulassung.

「Delta變種病毒與疫苗有效性」《自然》(Nature)期刊文章整理與摘譯

Delta變種病毒已經快速地成為全球許多國家最主要傳播的COVID-19病毒株,過去幾周,許多研究已經能更清楚解釋Delta變種病毒,究竟和它的類似病毒有哪些不同,以及它廣泛傳播的機制。台灣科技媒體中心整理並摘譯五篇《自然》(Nature)期刊探討Delta變種病毒與疫苗效力的文章,供大家參考。

Preprint from the CLoCk study looking at the rates of long COVID in children

A large study of children and young people who caught SARS-CoV-2 has found that as many as one in seven (14 per cent) may still have symptoms 15 weeks later.

UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) recommends third vaccine dose for severely immunosuppressed people

The Uk's JCVI has advised that a third primary dose be offered to individuals aged 12 years and over with severe immunosuppression in proximity of their first or second COVID-19 vaccine doses in the primary schedule.

Double vaccination halves risk of long COVID, study finds - data from the ZOE COVID Symptom Study app

Adults who have received a double vaccination are 49 per cent less likely to have Long COVID should they contract a COVID-19 infection, a new study finds. Researchers at King's College London analysed data from participants logging their symptoms, tests and vaccines on the UK ZOE COVID Symptom Study app between 8th December 2020 and 4 July 2021, including 1,240,009 (first dose) and 971,504 (second dose) vaccinated UK adults. The research team assessed a range of factors, including age, frailty and areas of deprivation and compared that with post-vaccination infection.

「高風險過敏族群在施打BNT疫苗的過敏研究」專家意見

在2021年8月31日台灣時間晚上11:00,正式發表在國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)研究標題:「Prevalence of Allergic Reactions After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccination Among Adults With High Allergy Risk」。研究調查高過敏族群在施打BNT新冠疫苗後產生的過敏或嚴重過敏狀況,希望能透過這項研究成果讓大多數的過敏患者接種後有更安全的配套觀察措施,以利擴大COVID-19的群體免疫數。

Could South Africa’s new, mutated C.1.2 variant be worse than Delta?

Scientists from South Africa have reported a new potential COVID-19 variant of interest (VOI) called C.1.2. This variant has been detected in South Africa from May 2021 onwards and has been detected in seven other countries including New Zealand. The paper, which is a preprint and is yet to be peer reviewed, suggests C.1.2 has accumulated a high number of mutations, compared to the original Wuhan virus. Many of these mutations have been identified in all four variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Delta and Gamma) but there are also additional mutations. The authors say these mutations provide sufficient cause for concern of continued transmission of this variant.

Do COVID-19 vaccines improve surfactant levels in the lungs?

Studies have shown that COVID-19 vaccines boost immunity, Prof. Abonyo explains whether they could also improve surfactant levels in the lungs:

What we know about menstrual changes after Covid vaccination 

Seven out of ten women report menstrual changes after vaccination, according to a preliminary survey of 14,000 women. Researchers in Granada will now study their menstrual health to find out if these changes are due to Covid-19 immunisation. 

Qué sabemos sobre los cambios en la menstruación tras la vacuna de la covid

Siete de cada diez mujeres dicen haber presentado cambios en la regla tras la vacunación, según una encuesta preliminar a 14.000. Ahora, investigadoras de Granada estudiarán su salud menstrual para conocer si estas alteraciones se deben a la inmunización contra la covid-19.

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About the Hub

The COVID-19 Vaccine Media Hub is a dedicated resource for journalists and fact checkers wanting access to evidence-based information on COVID-19 vaccines. The Hub brings together multiple sources of evidence-based information on vaccines, including explainers, expert commentary, the latest research and online press briefings, with material soon to be available in multiple languages.

If you’re a fact checker or a journalist, we’re here to help you find the information and experts you need for your story.

If you’re a member of the public and would like help finding information on COVID-19 vaccines, feel free to browse the site. You might also like to explore other evidence- based vaccine information sites such as the WHO's COVID-19 vaccine page.

This project is a global effort with contributions from Science Media Centres in Australia, the UK, Germany and New Zealand plus technology not-for-profit, Meedan. Other contributors are based in North America, Africa, Latin America and the Asia Pacific region.

The COVID-19 Vaccine Media Hub is supported by the Google News Initiative.

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SMC Taiwan was established in 2017, as one of the international SMCs. SMC Taiwan is the only SMC in Asia connecting journalists and scientists to provide evidence-based information through the media. Please contact us if you require any assistance with reporting COVID-19. 關於疫情若需要任何進一步的專家意見,以協助民眾判讀各式科學資訊,都歡迎隨時聯繫我們。 SMC Taiwan是國際科學媒體中心的一員,唯一的亞洲科學家媒體媒合平台,會持續提供專家意見與相關研究討論,給各位媒體朋友們參考。

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